Tag Archives: North America

The wasting of the stars: A look into the largest ocean epidemic in recorded history

By Peter Arcuni
July 18, 2017
Originally published in Peninsula Press
Audio report

In June 2013, Steve Fradkin hiked the rugged coast of Washington State’s Olympic National Park to count the stars. In the summertime, the lowest tides expose the slippery rocks of the intertidal zone from daybreak until noon. Perfect conditions for spotting Pisaster ochraceus, the five-armed purple, orange and red sea stars common to Pacific waters along the western edge of the United States. Continue reading The wasting of the stars: A look into the largest ocean epidemic in recorded history

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The fate of atmospheric Fukushima radiation

Did you enjoy your trip? If you were alive during the Fukushima meltdown in 2011, you received an extra dose of radiation equal to that received on a roundtrip flight from Vancouver to Tokyo. This is the result according to research presented by Nikolaos Evangeliou of the Norwegian Institute for Air Research at the annual meeting of the European Geophysical Union earlier this year.

Continue reading The fate of atmospheric Fukushima radiation

Looking For Fukushima Contamination in Mushrooms and Soil of Western North America

By Jay T. Cullen

@JayTCullen

Chanterelle Cantharellus cibarius
 

The purpose of this diary is to report results from a recently published, peer reviewed study (behind paywall) examining the degree of Fukushima contamination in fungi and soil of western North America. The diary is the most recent contribution to an ongoing series which aims to provide evidence from scientific studies assessing the impact of the Fukushima Daiichi disaster on the environment and the health of residents of North America. Trappe and colleagues measured the activity of cesium isotopes (134-Cs half life ~ 2 years; 137-Cs half life ~30 years) in wild mushrooms, soil and leaf litter of the west coast from California up to Vancouver Island. The conclusions of the study were as follows:

  1. No activity measurements exceeded levels thought to impact human health
  2. 137-Cs activity increased in fungi and soil towards the north
  3. 134-Cs increased to the south in leaf litter
  4. Chanterelles did not significantly bioconcentrate Cs isotopes
  5. 137-Cs and 134-Cs activities were highly variable from sample to sample
  6. 137-Cs levels largely reflected non-Fukushima sources from either atmospheric weapons tests in the last century or the Chernobyl disaster in 1986

Continue reading Looking For Fukushima Contamination in Mushrooms and Soil of Western North America

Study Identifies Pathogen Responsible For Sea Star Mass Die Offs Along Pacific Coast

By Jay T. Cullen

Sea star with Sea Star Wasting Disease photographed by the author at Botanical Beach near Port Renfrew BC in July 2014.

This diary summarizes a newly published paper by Hewson and colleagues in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA which investigated the cause of sea star die offs along the west coast of North America. This diary is part of series dedicated to summarizing scientific research on the impact of the triple meltdowns at the Fukushima Dai-ichii nuclear power plant on the North Pacific Ocean and the health of residents of North America. Northeast Pacific sea stars have experienced a mass die off recently and have disappeared from certain coastal ecosystems as a result. The Hewson et al. paper presents evidence that the cause of the wasting disease can be transmitted between affected to healthy individuals. The disease-carrying agent is virus sized and likely sea star-associated densovirus (SSaDV) which is found in greater numbers in diseased versus healthy sea stars. They also detected SSaDV in museum specimens of sea star dating from 1942 indicating that the virus has had a long term presence along the North American west coast.


There have been many speculative news items which have linked the release of radionuclides from Fukushima to the North Pacific Ocean to the most recent outbreak of sea star wasting which is occurring in west coast intertidal habitats. This is despite the fact that, for example, Fukushima derived radionuclides have still yet to be detected in coastal seawater collected up and down the North American Pacific coast.

Beginning in June 2013 massive numbers of sea stars have succumbed to sea-star wasting disease (SSWD) whereby they rapidly deteriorate, losing limbs, and turn into piles of slime. SSWD is an old term used to describe similar outbreaks of wasting that have occurred since at least 1979. The geographic extent and number of species impacted by the current SSWD outbreak is unprecedented. Affected individuals present with behavioural changes, lethargy, deflation, limb curling and loss, lesions and death. Very few individuals with symptoms are observed to recover.

Photographs of SSWD-affected stars (A) asymptomatic P. helianthoides, (B) symptomatic P. helianthoides, and (C) symptomatic P. ochraceus. Disease symptoms are consistent with loss of turgor, loss of rays, formation of lesions, and animal decomposition. (D) Map showing occurrence of SSWD based on first reported observation. (E) Transmission electron micrograph of negatively stained (uranyl acetate) viruses extracted from an affected wild E. troschelii from Vancouver . The sample contained 20–25-nm diameter nonenveloped icosohedral viral particles on a background of cellular debris (primarily ribosomal subunits) and degraded viral particles of similar morphology.

Hewson and colleagues examined affected and asymptomatic sea stars to demonstrate that an infective agent was responsible for SSWD. To do this they took homogenized SSWD affected sea stars and administered an inoculate or a heat killed inoculate of virus size containing filtrate to tanks containing healthy individuals. Results of these experiments indicate that heat killed inoculates did not lead healthy individuals to develop SSWD while inoculates with potentially live viral particles lead to SSWD symptoms in the previously healthy population. Previously healthy sea stars had very low loads of a virus callled Sea Star-Associated Densovirus (SSaDV) while after developing symptoms much higher amounts of SSaDV were found in the sea stars.

(A) Proportion of stars remaining asymptomatic after inoculation with control (heat-killed) or virus-sized fraction (VSF) of asteroid homogenates in first (Expt 1) and second (Expt 2) challenge. (B) Change in SSaDV load between initiation of viral challenge and termination of experiment (i.e., animal expiry in live challenge or euthanasia of control animals). Note difference in scale.
The authors then looked for the virus in asymptomatic and SSWD affected individuals in the wild finding that affected individuals were about 3 times more likely to be virus carrying than asymptomatic individuals. The virus was also found in plankton, sediments and other echinoderms. The presence of the virus in plankton and in filtration media of public aquaria affected by SSWD is consistent with observations that the disease could spread through ocean currents between infected and uninfected areas of the coast.

The authors conclude by pointing out that the spread of SSWD along our coast is most consistent with an infectious agent. Based on their observations and laboratory experiments this agent is most likely SSaDV which has been present along the coast for at least 72 years. Fukushima in not mentioned once in the article as there is no scientific evidence to relate SSWD to the trace concentrations of Fukushima derived radionuclides present offshore.

The authors identify outstanding questions as follows:

How exactly (by what mechanism) does SSaDV kill sea stars?
Are there other microbial agents involved in the wasting/death process?
What triggers outbreaks of SSWD?
How will the absence of important predators like sea stars affect the marine ecosystem along our coast?

The study highlights the increasingly recognized importance of marine viruses in helping to shape community structure and ecosystem dynamics in the ocean.

Fukushima Radionuclides in Pacific Albacore Tuna Off the US Coast

Tuna and gamma spectra. (Neville et al. 2014)
Tuna and gamma spectra. (Neville et al. 2014)

By Jay T. Cullen

Introduction

As part of an ongoing series documenting the impacts of the Fukushima disaster on the North Pacific and west coast, this post summarizes a recently published study by Delvan Neville and colleagues in the peer-reviewed journal Environmental Science and Technology. The paper reports measurements of Cesium-134 and Cesium-137 in 26 albacore tuna caught off the west coast of North America between 2008 and summer 2012. Because of its relatively short half-life (~2 years) 134-Cs is an unambiguous tracer of radionuclides released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi disaster which began in March 2011. Fish collected in 2011 and 2012 had higher 134-Cs and 137-Cs that was due to Fukushima sourced cesium in the Pacific. Fish collected in 2008-2009 had lower 137-Cs activities that largely reflected historic releases of the isotope from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing in the 20th century. The authors conclude that given the highest levels of Cs isotopes measured in albacore tuna, human consumption of the fish would not not represent a significant increase in annual radiation dose. The corresponding radiological health risk due to Fukushima derived radiocesium in these tuna is, therefore, very small. Continue reading Fukushima Radionuclides in Pacific Albacore Tuna Off the US Coast