Category Archives: Marine Life
by Ashley Braun
Originally in Hakai Magazine
Published: 16 Jan 2017
A heavily-exploited Japanese fish found sanctuary after the 2011 Fukushima earthquake.
You won’t catch any three-eyed mutant fish off the coast of Japan these days, but in the wake of the 2011 earthquake and tsunami you also won’t have a problem finding flounder, the latest species to suddenly flourish in a nuclear disaster zone after humans have been pushed away.
Updated – No Fukushima radiation found in 2016 Alaskan fish
No Fukushima contamination was found in any of the 14 fish Alaskan fish samples that were collected between February and September 2016, according to the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation. The results, released on the Alaksa DEC website, show that the sampled herring, cod, and pollock, halibut, and salmon did not have any detectable levels of 131I, 134Cs (the Fukushima fingerprint radionuclide with a half-life of ~2 years) or 137Cs in the tissues. These samples were from across Alaskan waters from Southeast to Bristol Bay and the Aleutian archipelago and the Bering Sea. Results from 2016 are similar to their results from 2015 and are part of the network of institutions monitoring for Fukushima radiation in marine waters and seafoods.
The average minimum detectable concentrations for these Alaskan samples on this gamma spectrometer were 63.7 Bq kg-1, 2.1 Bq kg-1, and 1.9 Bq kg-1 respectively for 131I 137Cs, and 134Cs. While InFORM does not analyze for 131I, those detection thresholds for cesium are 2-3 times higher than are typical for our biotic monitoring program. This may be due to either a smaller sample size or a shorter time in the gamma spectrometer for the Alaskan samples, but the result remains that levels are well below those where intervention is needed (intervention levels for 131I = 170 Bq kg-1 and 134Cs + 137Cs = 1200 Bq kg-1 according to the US Food and Drug Administration). InFORM monitoring in 2016 found 9 salmon (out of 123) from BC and Yukon rivers with detectable levels (where the minimum detectable concentrations were less than 1 Bq kg-1) of 137Cs after a six hour detector run. These nine samples are currently being freeze-dried for an extended, 2 week long, detection run. Results from this additional analysis are expected probably mid-late spring 2017.
An interesting aspect of these 2016 Alaskan samples is that this was the first time a field-deployable gamma spectrometer has been sent by the US Food and Drug Administration to a site for local analyses of samples. Data from the spectrometer were then electronically sent to FDA scientists for analysis. The thought is that this model could be used in the event of nuclear emergency to allow for more rapid analyses of environmental samples.
Alaska DEC will continue monitoring fish samples for Fukushima radiation for at least 2017 and possibly beyond.
No Fukushima radiation found in 2016 Alaskan fish
No Fukushima contamination was found in any of the 7 fish Alaskan fish samples that were collected during February and March of 2016. The results, released on the Department of Environmental Conservation website, show that the herring, cod, and pollock sampled did not have any detectable levels of 131I, 134Cs (the Fukushima fingerprint radionuclide with a half-life of ~2 years) or 137Cs in the tissues. These samples follow on their similar results from 2015 and are part of the network of institutions monitoring for Fukushima radiation in marine waters and seafoods. Continue reading No Fukushima radiation found in 2016 Alaskan fish
Fukushima contamination of Pacific Salmon: Lessons learned in the Atlantic Ocean
By Jay T. Cullen
The purpose of this post is to present measurements of artificial radionuclides in wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) made in 1990’s and reported in a peer reviewed paper published in the Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences by Tucker and colleagues in 1999. This post is part of an ongoing series dedicated to communicating the results of scientific research aimed at The paper combines an understanding of bioconcentration of the artificial radionuclide 137-cesium (137Cs half life ~30 years) in marine food webs with quality measurements of the contaminant in salmon that spent their lives in the North Atlantic Ocean. The North Atlantic at the time had a strong east to west gradient in 137Cs concentrations in seawater with >10 Bq m-3 in the east owing to spent nuclear fuel reprocessing in Europe and the recent impact of the Chernobyl disaster and <1.5 Bq m-3 in the west near to Canada. Salmon returning to the Ste. Marguerite River in Canada had a wide range of radiocesium in their bodies which reflected the entire range of values seen in fish harvested across the Atlantic Ocean. The results indicate that the migration routes of these salmon extended all the way across the Atlantic to the Irish and Norwegian seas. The study is relevant to understanding the impact of the Fukushima disaster on radiocesium levels in Pacific salmon as the maximum levels of contamination of seawater we see in the central and eastern North Pacific is lower than the maximum levels studies by Tucker and colleagues. Given this fact we would predict that levels of Fukushima derived contaminants in Pacific salmon and the health risk associated with the consumption of these fish will be correspondingly lower. Thus far the salmon monitoring results from the Integrated Fukushima Ocean Radionuclide Monitoring (InFORM) project are in keeping with the scientific communities understanding of 137Cs bioconcentration in fish outlined in the Tucker study and references therein.
Radionuclides in Atlantic Salmon: Bioconcentration and migration routes
When I was an undergraduate student at McGill University in Montreal, Dr. Joe Rasmussen (he is now at the University of Lethbridge in Alberta) headed up a freshwater ecology group that used radionuclides to understand energy and contaminant cycling in the aquatic environment. I remember learning about gamma spectrometry and the processing of samples for radionuclide determinations through conversations with his graduate students. Their work made an impression on me and highlighted the utility of radioisotopes for understanding rates of processes and pathways of contaminant transport in natural waters. The paper I will summarize here roughly dates to my time at McGill and is the work of Strahan Tucker who along with Marc Trudel works for Fisheries and Oceans Canada at the Pacific Biological Station in Nanaimo BC and part of the team of scientists working on the InFORM project. Tucker and colleagues exploited the east to west gradient in 137Cs activity in seawater in the North Atlantic to determine how much radiocesium was present in Atlantic salmon returning to the Ste. Marguerite River in Canada and by extension where they had migrated and fed during their growth and development. The figure below shows the high levels of seawater 137Cs contamination in the Irish Sea and eastern Atlantic compared to the western Atlantic near Canada owing to release of the isotope from fuel reprocessing plants in the UK and France and deposit of Chernobyl derived contamination in 1986.
137Cs distribution (Bq m–3) in waters of the North Atlantic with levels >10 in marginal seas of the eastern Atlantic and 0-1.5 in waters of the west near to Canada.
Given that salmon tend to bioconcentrate radiocesium about 130 times relative to the seawater in which the live (through the prey they consume) the predicted range in 137Cs in salmon from the eastern Atlantic would be 1.3 — 4.0 Bq kg-1 while fish living in the less contaminated western Atlantic would have 0.15 — 0.65 Bq kg-1. The range of 137Cs measured by Tucker and colleagues in salmon returning to the St. Marguerite River in Quebec, Canada, predicted ranges given seawater activities in the figure above and activities in fish harvested from different areas of the North Atlantic are summarized in the figure below.
Frequency distribution of 137Cs concentrations (Bq kg–1) in Atlantic salmon from the Ste. Marguerite River, Que. Tissue samples were obtained fish caught in the sport fishery during the summers of 1995 (n = 33) and 1996 (n = 28) and measured by gamma spectrometry. Dashed vertical lines denote the expected range in 137Cs concentrations in salmon based on a mean bioaccumulation factor of 130 from waters in the North Atlantic outlined in the color bar above (water 137Cs concentrations color coded as in the first figure). Horizontal lines denote the observed ranges in 137Cs concentrations in salmon and other fish (cod, whiting, haddock, hake, mackerel, and plaice) caught in those same waters.
The range of activities found in the migratory Atlantic salmon is similar to the range seen for other species of fish across the North Atlantic and suggests that almost half of the Ste. Marguerite salmon spent their lives feeding in waters near to Norway and the UK. This is an amazing result and suggested that more fish spend more time in the eastern Atlantic than was thought at the time. The levels seen in the salmon agree well with predictions based on seawater activities and the expected bioconcentration factor in the food web to salmon of ~130. You can read more about bioconcentration of radionuclides and concentration factors in marine organisms in one of my earlier posts here.
What does this tell us about expected contamination from Fukushima in Pacific Salmon and health risks to consumers?
The maximum seawater concentration of 137Cs in the central and eastern North Pacific we have measured through the InFORM project is about 7 — 10 Bq m-3. Given the bioconcentration expected from previous studies of salmonid species like Tucker and colleagues above we might expect maximum contamination levels in Pacific salmon of ~ 1.3 Bq kg-1 wet weight. The range of values we have detected in Pacific species returning to British Columbia rivers and streams since the Fukushima disaster in 2011 is ~0.20-0.60 Bq kg-1 suggesting that these fish have consumed prey and lived in waters with seawater activities <10 Bq m-3. At present the levels of Fukushima derived contamination do not lead to ionizing radiation doses to consumers that remotely approach the dose attributable to naturally occurring radioisotopes like 40K and 210Po. The ionizing radiation dose from the naturally occurring isotopes do not approach levels where significant risks to the health of consumers are to be expected. Given what the scientific community understands about bioconcentration of the most radiologically significant isotopes released from Fukushima and measured and forecast levels of these isotopes in the expansive North Pacific the community has confidence that levels in Pacific salmon species will not approach levels were risk to consumers will become significant. The InFORM project will continue to monitor contamination levels in seawater and the marine biota to provide accurate information and useful, scientifically derived assessment of risk to the public.